Signs and Symptoms in Family Medicine E-Book: A Literature-Based Approach

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Question can be put differently: What are effective preventive activities in adolescents? Search criteria: adolescent prevention Limits: no limit. Result: articles.

1. Choose the right condition

Search criteria: adolescent prevention family medicine no limits. Search criteria: adolescent prevention family medicine Limits Meta-Analysis 0 articles. Search criteria: adolescent prevention family medicine Limits RCR. Result: 13 articles. From read summaries — clinical guideline for preventive activities among children and adults. Search of adolescent prevention on www. Result: 20 guidelines. Preventive services for children and adolescents. Incorporate need assessment for preventive activities and counseling and education in acute visit if it is possible.


  1. 2. Identify patients with the condition.
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All clinical visits, whether acute or chronic, are opportunity for preventive counseling and planned care for pediatric patients. There are specific intervals when a healthy child should visit a doctor. For adolescents — twice in age between 13 and 18 years. Papa test starts with age of 18 or since beginning of sexual activity within maximal intervals of 3 years.

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Involve counseling and education for which exist good or fair evidences. Evidence based medicine EBM is conscious, specific, reasonable use of modern, best evidences in making decisions about treatment of individual patients. It is not a medical cook-book with recipes, but its good application brings cost-effective and better health care. Its real purpose is that by the use of the best possible evidence doctor chooses for his patient the best possible solution, wanting to provide to him the optimum health care in every aspect.

It is also used to avoid major mistakes in the course of treatment, and by this raises the quality of provided health care to the patient. In a wider context, it can save the lives of our patients. EBM requires new knowledge from the physician, which means knowledge of English language and work on the computer, which provides access to medical databases, the ability to search medical literature and basic skills in the interpretation of epidemiological and statistical results.

Signs and Symptoms in Family Medicine

Since each physician must, in one way or another, seek valid information, we can say that the proper use of EBM saves doctors time and raises his level as well as the quality of provided medical services, and increases satisfaction of the health professionals. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Acta Inform Med v. Acta Inform Med. Published online Dec. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

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Received Aug 10; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Key words: Evidence Based Medicine, health, patients, decision making. Step 1. Defining problem Each doctor several times a day is in the position of making various medical decisions. PICO format: the patient or problem — who are the relevant patients, what kind of problem we try to solve? Type of clinical question The most common type of clinical question is about how to treat a disease or condition.

Types of clinical questions: questions about intervention questions about etiology and risk factors questions about frequency and rate questions about diagnosis questions about prognosis and prediction question about cost-effectiveness question about phenomena.

Step 2. Search for wanted sources of information After formulating the clinical question, which stems from a concrete patient, the next step is to search for relevant evidence that will provide the answer to the question.


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Step 3. Critical evaluation of the information When we decide which magazine to read, it is important to read it carefully, because not all the published information is of equal importance and value. Step 4. Application of information of the patient The fourth step in the process of the use of Evidence Based Medicine in practice is the decision how to apply acquired information on the special circumstances pertaining to each patient.

The questions that we should ask before the decision to apply the results of the study are: Are the participants in the study similar enough to my patient? Is the treatment available and is health care system prepared to fund it? What alternatives are available? Do the potential side effects of the drug or procedure outweigh the benefits? Step 5.

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Efficacy evaluation of EBM application on a patient The final step is the evaluation of Evidence - based approach and efficiency of its application to a specific patient. The EBM-oriented clinicians of tomorrow have three tasks: To use evidence summaries in clinical practice; To help develop and update selected systematic reviews or evidence-based guidelines in their area of expertise; and To enrol patients in studies of treatment, diagnosis and prognosis on which medical practice is based.

Sources of evidence There are different web sources of evidence. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases CRD database provides DARE and NHS EED database, which contains over 6, abstracts of quality assessed economic evaluation, aims to assist decision-makers by systematically identifying and describing economic evaluations, appraising their quality, and highlighting their relative strengths and weaknesses 1.

Result: articles Who can read all this? Result: articles Can someone read this?

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In what time? Open in a separate window. Result: 13 articles From read summaries — clinical guideline for preventive activities among children and adults.

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Search on PubMed Search of adolescent prevention on www. Specific guidelines for adolescents - screenings Risk estimation Interval anamnesis Estimation of physical and mental development Physical examination Blood pressure Papa test starts with age of 18 or since beginning of sexual activity within maximal intervals of 3 years. Specific guidelines for adolescents - additional screening for those under high risk Tuberculosis test Lipid levels Examination of testicles Testing on sexually transmitted diseases. Specific guidelines for adolescents — counseling and education Good evidences to be included in practice: Limited intake of saturated fats Supplement with folic acid Stop smoking Problem alcohol drinking.

Specific guidelines for adolescents — counseling and education Fairly evidences to be included in practice: Caloric and nutritional balance in nutrition Physical activity Drinking and driving Use of seat belts Prevention of unwanted pregnancy Protection from the ultraviolet UV radiation Dental and periodontal diseases. Conduct screening and additional screenings for those under increased risk.

Medicina bazirana na dokazima. Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone, [ Google Scholar ]. Ridsdale L. This handy, take-along guide is ideal for quick reference at the bedside or a refresher while prepping for the boards. Easily find what you need with consistently organized chapters and an at-a-glance bulleted format.

Rule out the most serious possibilities quickly with differential diagnoses listed in descending order of severity. Review symptoms, signs, suggested work-up, and patient disposition for each diagnosis. Erscheint lt. Verlag 1. Wie bewerten Sie den Artikel?